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The fighting became uncharacteristically open as isolated pockets of defenders attempted to slow the German advance.

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Such was the situation that on 11 April, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig issued a special order of the day using the phrase 'Backs to the Wall' to sum up the desperate but determined fighting in progress that needed to be maintained. The advances had no decisive goal other than to punch a hole in the Allied line and primarily target the British.

The largest gains took place where the Allies were most willing to give ground. German casualties were high, particularly amongst the best units. The tide began to turn and by early summer the German offensives ground to a halt. The Battle of Amiens August heralded the start of the Hundred Days campaign, a four-month period of Allied success. After surviving the German Spring Offensives, Allied forces launched a counter-punch of their own and from the summer of onwards, they were constantly on the advance.

Through the harsh experiences of the past the Allies had developed advanced operational methods that best used the materiel power at their disposal. The British Expeditionary Force BEF was at the forefront, combining scientific artillery methods and flexible infantry firepower with the use of tanks and aircraft. These combined arms methods were to form a blueprint for the future. Secretive preparations ensured surprise and the BEF made gains of seven miles on that one day — German General Erich Ludendorff described it as the 'black day' of the German Army.

But unlike offensives of the past, the Allies now knew when to stop. This set the pattern for success. A series of co-ordinated hammer blows forced increasingly exhausted German forces back. Allied attacks were flexible, utilising surprise and mobility but also the methodical approach of when necessary to break German defences. Casualties were still significant, but the gains were decisive. By November the German Army could fight no longer. It had been pushed back to the battlefields of and was moving in only one direction. It successfully combined cavalry, infantry, artillery, armoured vehicles and aircraft to achieve decisive victory over the Ottoman Turks and their German allies.

It was the start of a series of important Allied victories that ultimately led to the collapse of Ottoman Turkish forces and their eventual withdrawal from the war. A successful Allied deception campaign had convinced Ottoman forces that an Allied attack would come further east, leaving Ottoman defences in coastal Palestine vulnerable and ultimately outnumbered. The offensive opened with an intense but brief artillery bombardment. British and Commonwealth forces quickly broke through the battered Ottoman lines with an advance of over 30km on the first day.

The Desert Mounted Corps then quickly pushed through gaps in the defences to encircle the Ottoman troops. The Ottoman Eighth and Seventh Armies collapsed under the pressure of the Allied attack, surrendering in the tens of thousands. Victory at Megiddo opened the way to Damascus, which Australian troops entered on 1 October. In the weeks that followed, the Allies captured other strategically important cities.

This was also after Turkish forces were defeated by Britain and its allies in Mesopotamia. Sign up for more fascinating stories from our collections and be the first to hear about the latest exhibitions, events and offers from IWM. IWM Staff. Wednesday 3 January On 6 July several defections in the House gave Massey the numbers to form a government. While Massey was a farmer, several of his Cabinet were urban businessmen or professionals. The Liberals were criticised for having manipulated the public service by dispensing patronage. With the country split into two irreconcilable camps, the government sided firmly with the employers in opposing industrial militancy.

Violent clashes between unionised workers and non-union labour erupted once more during waterfront strike , after industrial action on the wharves disrupted the ability of farmers to get their products to overseas markets. The strike ended in December with the defeat of the United Federation of Labour. The Defence Act introduced compulsory military training, with all boys aged between 12 and 14 required to complete 52 hours of physical training each year as Junior Cadets.

Developing fit and healthy citizens was seen as vital to the strength of the country and the empire. The Boy Scout movement had arrived in New Zealand in with similar aims of producing patriots capable of defending the empire. Boys were taught moral values, patriotism, discipline and outdoor skills through games and activities. On 5 August word reached Wellington that the British Empire was at war.

Thousands signed up for service, desperate not to miss out on an event many expected to be over by Christmas. The First World War would ultimately claim the lives of 18, New Zealanders and wound another 41, To what extent it forged a sense of national identity has provoked much debate. The war took , New Zealanders overseas, most for the first time. Some anticipated a great adventure but found the reality very different. Being so far from home made these New Zealanders very aware of who they were and where they were from. They were also able to compare themselves with men from other nations, in battle and behind the lines.

Out of these experiences came a sense of a separate identity. The American historian Peter Stearns adopted a similar approach but started in and concluded with the outbreak of the First World War in These approaches recognise that historical forces and processes cannot be shoehorned into conventional periods of time such as decades and centuries.

Skip to main content. Map showing Cook's voyages. Wellington Harbour, Treaty of Waitangi. Waikato War map. The Native Land Court One of the key products of the Native Lands Act, the Native Land Court achieved what had not been accomplished on the battlefield: the acquisition of enough land to satisfy settler appetites.

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Gold discovered in Otago. Expansion of the North Island rail network. Anti-alcohol cartoon from Richard Seddon and his Cabinet, King Dick the peacemaker cannon, Federated Australia elephant. Massey memorial, Wellington. Mounted Rifles Regiment parading through Nelson. Share this item Share on facebook Share on twitter. William Williams. John McKenzie. Gustavus von Tempsky. James Allen. George Whitmore. William Pember Reeves. Duncan Cameron. Francis Henry Dillon Bell. William Massey. Thomas Mackenzie.

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Joseph Ward. William Hall-Jones. Betty Guard. Henry Williams. James Cowan. William Colenso. Frederick Whitaker. Julius Vogel. William Spain. Richard Seddon.

James Crowe Richmond. James Prendergast. Gilbert Mair. No scruples weakened their lust for money; they made their money and left their muck.

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Hoskins, she wrote, forgetting all the horrors, "reaches back through the centuries one by one and rediscovers Eden". Penelope Lively , writing in The Guardian , describes the book as. You were to put on your walking boots and understand the country in which you lived. Plenty did, or tried to; I did.

William Boyd , also in The Guardian , described the book as "an absolute trailblazer, a revolution. Auden "revered" the book, and that reading Hoskins had enabled him to 'read' a landscape as a "historical palimpsest ": [22]. The familiar English countryside, in whatever regional variation, became a form of historical palimpsest — its evolving history there to be decoded and discerned for those who could look at it through the innovative lens that Hoskins provided. It was as if the landscape was all of a sudden an archaeological dig — hills and dales, woods and copses, fields and rivers, villages and roads ceased to be simple features of a view.

Instead the whole history of English humankind and husbandry was on display, from the Holocene age to the latest horrors of agribusiness. And the book in which that history was written was the very land itself. Local historian Graeme White, in The Medieval English Landscape, — , calls Hoskins' book "brilliantly-crafted" and observes that "Although this famously railed against the 'England of the arterial by-pass, treeless and stinking of diesel oil' — along with much else belonging to the mid-twentieth century — the fact that national car ownership more than doubled during the s made this a subject whose time had come.

The Making of the English Landscape - Wikipedia

Paul Johnson , writing in The Spectator , said that the book "was for me an eye-opener, as it was for many people. It told us of the extent to which our landscape had been made by man, not God, and taught us to look much more observantly at it. Matthew H. Johnson, writing a chapter on English culture and landscape in the edited book The Public Value of the Humanities , identifies "six key points" established by Hoskins: [25].

What else has happened in the immemorial landscape of the English countryside? Airfields have flayed it bare … Poor devastated Lincolnshire and Suffolk!

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And those long gentle lines of the dip-slope of the Cotswolds, those misty uplands of the sheep-grey oolite, how they have lent themselves to the villainous requirements of the new age! Over them drones, day after day, the obscene shape of the atom-bomber, laying a trail like a filthy slug upon Constable's and Gainsborough's sky. England of the Nissen-hut , the " pre-fab ", and the electric fence, of the high barbed wire around some unmentionable devilment; England of the arterial by-pass, treeless and stinking of diesel oil, murderous with lorries; England of the bombing-range wherever there was once silence … Barbaric England of the scientists, the military men, and the politicians; let us turn away and contemplate the past before all is lost to the vandals.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Book about history of England's landscapes by William George Hoskins. Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 26 May British History Online. Retrieved 27 May December The Geographical Journal. The Guardian. The Medieval English Landscape, — The Spectator. Bate, Jonathan ed. Chapter 9. The Public Value of the Humanities. Bloomsbury Academic. English Landscapes. How to read the man-made scenery of England. One Man's England. Categories : books Landscape history History books about England Archaeology books.

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